The League of American Bicyclists preaches the ABC QuickCheck via Traffic Skills 101 and other bicycle ed programs. It’s a great check-through that applies to nearly every kind of bicycle on the market.
Bicycling magazine has a series of maintenance videos, and created a video of a pre-ride safety check I found interesting. It’s a little more thorough, and it’s being executed against a fairly high-end bike. Some of the issues to check for end up being different on high-end bikes, thanks to issues like the fancy wheels, frame materials, etc.
Check it out: